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Casa Museo de Pizarro



Escudo de Pizarro

Esta casa que luce el escudo de la familia de los Pizarro es hoy un centro de interpretación de la conquista americana y la figura del trujillano Francisco Pizarro.

Horario de apertura: 10.00 a 14.00h y de 17.00 a 20.00h
Precio de la entrada 1,40 € - Grupos a partir de 10 personas 1,00 € - menores de 13 años Gratis



CASA MUSEO PIZARRO



Es una casa solariega del siglo XV, a la que se accede por una portada en arco apuntado sobre la que descansa un escudo de los Pizarros enmarcado en alfiz. 

La Casa-Museo de Pizarro, actualmente dependiente del Ayuntamiento de Trujillo, es un espacio dedicado al conquistador del Imperio Inca Francisco Pizarro. Los historiadores locales han identificado esta casa –erróneamente- como el solar que fuera la casa familiar de su padre don Gonzalo Pizarro “El Largo”, donde la Escuela-Taller de Trujillo, bajo la supervisión de un Patronato dirigido por don Duarte Pinto Coelho, don Francisco Mayans y don Álvaro Fernández Villaverde han rehabilitado el edificio, acomodándolo a las exigencias de un Museo actual. 

El contenido del Museo se ajusta a lo que fue la vida del Conquistador, y el espacio disponible se ha distribuido en dos zonas. En la Planta Baja, la recreación de una vivienda de hidalgo español durante el siglo XV, y en la Planta Alta, una exposición dedicada a la vida y obra de don Francisco Pizarro. Se ha procurado que cada uno de estos ambientes tengan un desarrollo claro y sencillo, donde los objetos expuestos y el propio guión de la exposición facilite al visitante su fácil comprensión. La mayoría de las piezas expuestas son originales, aunque en algunos casos se ha recurrido a copias de buena calidad para ilustrar algunos aspectos de la exposición que, de otra forma, hubieran sido difíciles de comprender.

El patio trasero de la vivienda, al cual se accede por una puerta de la tapia, recoge algunas de las especies vegetales iberoamericanas que los españoles introdujeron en Europa. Cada una de ellas tiene su propia cartela de identificación. El porche se ha dedicado a evocar el intercambio de productos entre el continente americano y el europeo, a consecuencia del Descubrimiento y colonización. Un cuadro de grandes dimensiones, que ocupa casi toda la pared, representa la aportación de ambos continentes. El resto de la planta baja está dividido en cuatro ambientes perfectamente diferenciados: la despensa, el hogar, el dormitorio y la habitación principal.

El dormitorio es un espacio recreado con especial cuidado. Una cama con dosel, vestida con ropas de lino y seda, es el elemento más importante. En torno a él se disponen los objetos comunes a este tipo de espacio doméstico: una rueca con husos para hilar y una canasta de mimbre con linos, una cómoda, dos alfombrillas, un silla, unas andaderas, un taquillón, una jarra, un lebrillo y dos candiles de bronce, todos ellos de época. También figura un cuadro al óleo de estilo peruano representando a la Virgen de la Merced con Santos, bajo cuya advocación se fundó en Trujillo un convento, del que fue Comendador Tirso de Molina, autor de tres obras sobre los Pizarros.

La habitación principal proporciona información sobre Francisco Pizarro. En una de las paredes se puede ver una reproducción del retrato del Conquistador cuyo original se encuentra en el Museo de América de Madrid. En otra de las paredes aparece un panel con el árbol genealógico de la familia reproducido gracias a la gentileza del historiador don John Hemming. En un muro de la planta baja figura una placa en la que reza: 

"Este edificio, propiedad del Excmo Ayuntamiento, ha sido rehabilitado por la Escuela-Taller de Trujillo bajo el patrocinio del INEM-FS para su adaptación Casa-Museo de Pizarro, según el proyecto concebido y gestionado por el Duque de San Carlos, Duarte Pinto-Coelho y Francisco José Mayans. El moblaje, elementos decorativos, instalación museográfica y asesoramiento técnico, se ha sufragado con las generosas donaciones del Banco Central Hispano, Ferrovial, Fundación Kress-World Monuments Fund, IBM y Wilmore Corporation, así como Esther y James Ferguson". 

Una angosta escalera conduce a la planta superior y al museo propiamente dicho, cuyo discurso gira en torno a la vida de Francisco Pizarro dividido en cinco unidades temáticas que coinciden con los momentos claves en la biografía del conquistador: los primeros años americanos, el imperio de los incas, el contacto, el Perú durante la colonia y la muerte de Pizarro. Estos espacios están constituidos por un determinado número de vitrinas, donde lo importante es el estímulo visual. En cada una de las vitrinas, se ofrece una información breve que utiliza soportes variados: textos escritos, fotografías, dibujos, grabados, facsímiles de la época y objetos, tanto originales como reproducciones.

En esta casa vivió don Francisco Pizarro Vargas que tiene su enterramiento en la cercana iglesia conventual de Jerónimas de Santa María, en el lado del Evangelio se conserva su estatua orante, que había sido atribuida erróneamente a don Gómez Sedeño de Solís, por encontrarse encima de su lauda sepulcral, fechada en 15401 Pizarro Vargas, era hijo de don Álvaro Pizarro y doña Marina Álvarez de Orellana-, casado con Isabel de Vargas cuyo sepulcro se sitúa junto también en el lado de la Epístola de la dicha iglesia2

El sepulcro de don Francisco Pizarro Vargas está formado por un arco de medio punto con rosca cajeada y decorada por serafines. Sobre un arcosolium de granito se situaba la estatua orante apoyada sobre un sarcófago rectangular. Una lauda muestra las armas del fallecido, dos osos rampantes y un pino enmarcados en un escudo con águila, dos cabezas de león con argollas. 

Hizo testamento en Trujillo (9 de junio de 1569), poco antes de partir para Granada, dejando a la voluntad de sus herederos la forma y disposición de su enterramiento ordenando ser “ por estar camino como estoy para servir a Dios y S.M. en esta guerra de Granada, mando que si muriese o falleciere en esta ciudad de Truxillo, que mi cuerpo sea sepultado y enterrado en el Monasterio de Nuestra Señora Santa María de las Beatas dé esta dicha ciudad, dentro de los muros della, y si en otra parte muriere, sean traídos mis huesos allí, al dicho Monasterio y puestos en el entierro que de suyo se dirá: mando y quiero y es mi voluntad que en el dicho Monasterio de las Beatas de Santa María se elija y haga una sepultura con su laude y armas y letras mías y de los dichos mis señores padres en la parte y lugar y según como mis testamentarios pareciere y que se dé al dicho Monasterio la limosna que se acostumbra y lo que quisieren y bien visto les fuere a los dichos mis testamentarios: mando que a la dicha sepultura y entierro se lleven los huesos de los dichos mis señores padres y ruego al cura y a los servidores de la Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de Santa María la Mayor donde los dichos mis padres están enterrados, que lo hayan por bien y que mis testamentarios en razón dello hagan a la dicha iglesia alguna limosna según y como en aquella cantidad les pareciere ”3. Don Francisco Pizarro de Vargas falleció en el año 1569 con motivo de las guerras de Granada y se pasa al protocolo su testamento después de acaecida ésta.


 HOUSE MUSEUM OF PIZARRO

Having visited de ground floor, where everything revolves around the reconstruction of a 16th century house, the staircase will take visitors up to the first floor and the museum focused exclusively on the life of Francisco Pizarro. The exhibition is divided into five sections, each relating to one of the key moments of the Conqueror´s life: The first years in America; the Inca Empire. First encounters, Peru and foundationsand the death of Pizarro.

The exhibits are shown in display cases, especially designed so that the eye can take in the wealth of detail in them. Each contains information in writing, photographs, drawings, etchings and facsimiles from the time and objects of all sorts, 90% of which are original.

The display cases are all the same size and shape, with a large upright panel at the back and a smaller, titled one across the base. There are also four additional sources of information: a summary panel, showing the most important events in the Conqueror´s life in chronological order, a computer on which the visitor can call up more in depth data on the subjects covered by the display cases; a scale model of Peru with geographical and historical information, and a large panel with paintings related to Pizarro´s life, hung over the staircase entrance.

The first years in America
This section consists of three display cases, to the left of the stairs as one enters the upper floor.

The crossing

A map of the Atlantic ocean with Europe and America on either side serves as the focal point, around which are photos and drawings of the trip, while the lower part of the case shows the points of arrival and departure, with the dry landscape of Trujillo (Extremadura) and the tropical lushness of the Antillles represented on either side of a reproduction of Juan de la Cosas´s map. The idea is to make visitors aware if the enormous differences between the old and the new world and just what undertaking a journey between the two, must have entailed at that time.

The first years in America.

This showcase covers Pizarro´s stay in Panama, the upper part deals with this role in the discovery of the Pacific Ocean as lieutenant to Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a feat of key importance for future explorers and in the discovery and conquest of the Inca Empire. The lower part shows what the indigenous cultures on the Isthmus were like when the Spaniards first made contact with them. Apart from pictures, there is also a selection of Panamian objects related to the economic activities of the natives there (basket, arrow quivers and sharpeners) as well as some of their adornments (golden clasp).

The preparation for the Peruvian expedition

The upper part of the display case shows a map of the Panamanian Isthmus and the Pacific coasts of Southern America, the scene of the many voyages leading up to the conquest of Peru. Around this are documents and pictures related to what was known as the “Levante Enterprise” including the Capitulaciones from the Crown, required credentials for all colonial expeditions of conquest. The lower part deals with the Peruvian native prophecy according to which one of the heroes of their mythology. Viracocha, the bearded white man, would return to reclaim his old possessions.

The Inca Empire

Opposite the section on the first years in America, laid out symmetrically with it, are the three display cases of the Inca culture.

The Incas

This case explains what the world that Pizarro encountered must have looked like. Against a background of a drawing of the Peruvian pacific coast, which shows the Central Andes, one can see how vast the area the Inca Empire covered.

On the other side of the map are examples of the arts and crafts of the many people making up the empire and those of their predecessors. Some of the exhibits are archaeological findings: Inca cloth, three gold clasps, a Chancay bag, pieced together from the original material and the reproduction of a jug from one of the most ancient of Peruvian cultures, the Chavin. The lower part of this display case deals with the way empire was organised: storage areas, administration areas; it also includes a humanshaped vase from the Chimu culture on the northern coast of Peru.

The upper part of this case, covers aspects relating to religion and literature: how the various divinities were worshipped, with pictures of the gods and goddesses, idols, sanctuaries, temples and sacred places. The lower part deals with medicine and astronomy, displaying  some original articles, such as a decorated Inca knob, a small tumi or ceremonial copper knife and a small cloth bag of coca leaves, decorated with geometrical patterns.

The lower part shows how the Incas used the natural resources around them in farming, animal husbandry, as well as their talents in producing objects by hand and in organised system.

First Encounters

Entering the next room, visitors will reach the section covering the first contact between the Spaniards and the Incas, with two display cases.

The upper part shows the differences between the two contenders and the way they fought: the Spanish forces and the Inca standing army. The lower shows the different arms they used. There are various outstanding original exhibits, an Inca cloth sling, headgear made out of wool and human hair, some stone arrowheads and an inscribed Spanish 16th century sword.

The upper part shows the events leading to the Inca´s downfall and the capture, imprisonment and death of Atahualpa in Cajamarca. Below we can find a picture of “El Conquistador” and a clear allusion to what any conqueror hopes to achieve: fame, honour and wealth. It includes the following objects: a 16th century helmet and breastplate, a leather pouch with silver nuggets from Potosi, some colonial coins in silver and copper and a small silver Inca vesses.

The foundations

The upper part deals with the founding of new towns, focusing specially on the city of Trujillo in Peru. There are various facsimiles of 18th century drawings shoeing the work of Bishop MartínezCompañon and an outstanding original illuminated etching of the Peruvian Trujillo, done in the second half of the 18th century. The lower part covers the buildings in these new towns, both those built from scratcha and those made in what were originally Inca settlements.

During Pizarro´s travels around the lands that had made up the Chimu kingdom, he decide to found a new city to link up recently created city of the Monarchs (Lima) with the precursor of San Miguel. Having chosen 5th March as the day on which to lay the first stone, he appointed the first stone, he appointed the first municipal corporation for the new city, which was called Trujillo in honour of his home-town in Extremadura.

The death of Pizarro

The upper part covers the civil wars between Pizarrro and Almagro and the death of both men. Almagro was captured and beheaded by Pizarro´s troops and Pizarro was killed by Almagro´s faction.

Peru was not a lucky place for Pizarro family. Juan Pizarro died in the siege of Cuzco in 1536. Gonzalo Pizarro, rebelled against the King and was executed in 1548. The only one of the four brothers to survive was Hernando, but even he did not escaped what it seemed to be family curse. In 1539 he returned to Spain where the followers of Almagro accused him with the death of Francisco Pizarro´s old companion-in-arms. He was found guilty and imprisoned in the castle of La Mota for 20 years, during which he married his niece. Francisca Pizarro Yupanqui. In 1561 he was freed and they went to live in Trujillo (Extremadura) where he built what is now known as the Palace of the Conquest.

The rear courtyard, entered through a gate in the wall, shelters some Latin-American plant species that the Spaniards introduced to Europe. Small signs identify and describe each of these.

The entrance hall deals with the exchanges that took place between the two continents following the discovery of America and its colonizations. A painting taking up nearly the entire wall, shows the foodstuffs each side traded: a Spaniard bears the products that Europe sent to America (vines, olive trees, wheat, sugar cane, coffee, onion, garlic, etc) while an American Indian bears the goods that travelled in the opposite direction (tomatoes, potatoes, chocolate, papayas, chili peppers, etc).

The hall also contains various farming utensils and other period pieces, including a wooden chest, two yokes, shovels and winnowing rakes.

The rest of the ground floor is divided into four separate rooms: the scullery, the hearth, the bedroom and the main room.

The main room, which also acts as a hallway for access to the other parts of the ground floor, is furnished with an old chestnut cupboard with four doors, containing four earthenware jugs, a San Antonio style table with its original metal fittings, one ceramic and one copper plate, a tin cup, a white china pitcher and a pork-curing table. Apart from these objects, the main room provides information about Francisco Pizarro. A reproduction of the conqueror, whose original is in the Museum of America in Madrid, hangs on one wall.

The contents of the museum revolve around the Conqueror´s life, and it has been divided into two main ideas. On the ground floor, visitors can wander through a recreation of the sixteenth-century Spanish knight´s living conditions. The first floor, meanwhile, houses an exhibition of Pizarro´s life and works. Both these areas have been laid out in a clear, simple manner, so that visitors with the museum brochure in hand will find it easy to follow the order of the exhibits. Most of the pieces on display are original, although sometimes top-quality copies had to be made to illustrate certain aspects that would have left significant gaps if not included.